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m(S'~8 Microcomputer Set
8008
8 Bit Parallel
Central Processor Unit
USERS MANUAL
NOVEMBER 1973
REV. 4
Second Printing
C Intel Corp. 197J

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InTEL
SUPPORT
mdKES
SYSTEm
BUilDInG
EdSY.
The MCS-S™ parallel 8-bit microcomputer set is de-
signed for efficient handling of large volumes of data.
It has interrupt capability, operates synchronously or
asynchronously with external memory, and executes
subroutines nested up to seven levels. The 8008 CPU,
heart of the MCS-8, replaces 125 TTL packs. With it
you can easi Iy address up to 16k 8-bit words of ROM,
RAM or shift registers. Using bank switching techniques,
you can extend its memory indefinitely.
The PL/M™ High Level Language is an easy-to-Iearn,
systems oriented language derived from IBM's PL/I by
Intel for programming the MCS-8 and future 8-bit micro-
computers. It gives the microcomputer programmer the
same high level language advantages currently available
in mini and large computers. By actual tests, PL/M pro-
gramming and debugging requires less than 10% of the
time needed for assembly language. The PL/M compiler
is written in Fortran IV for time-share, and needs little
or no alteration for most general purpose computers.
Inteliec™S Development Systems provide flexible, inex-
pensive, and simplified methods for OEM product de-
velopment. They use RAM for program storage instead
of ROM, making program loading and modification
easier. The Intellec features are:
• Display and Control Console
• Standard DMA channel
• Standard software package
• Expandable memory and I/O
• TTY interface
• PROM programming capability
"The Intellec control panel is used for system monitoring
and debugging. These features and the many standard
Intellec modules add up to faster turn around and re-
duced costs for your product development.
And, There's More .....
Intel's Microcomputer Systems Group continues to de-
velop new design aids that make microcomputer system-
building easier. They will provide assistance in every
phase of your program development.
For additional information:
Microcomputer Systems Group
INTE L Corporation
3065 Bowers Avenue
Santa Clara, California 95051
Phone (408) 246-7501
intel®
delivers.

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8008
8Bit Parallel· Central Processor Unit
The 8008 is a complete computer system central' processor unit which may be interfaced with memories
having capacities up to 16K bytes. The processor communicates over an 8-bit data and address bus and
uses two leads for internal control and four leads for external control. The CPU contains an 8-bit
parallel arithmetic unit, a dynamic RAM (seven 8-bit data registers and an 8x14 stack), and complete
instruction decoding and control logic.
Features
• 8-Bit Parallel CPU on a
Single Chip
• 48 Instructions, Data
Oriented
• Complete Instruction
Decoding and Control
Included
• Instruction Cycle Time-
12.5 p,s with 8008-1 or 20 p,s
with 8008
• TTL Compatible (Inputs,
Outputs and Clocks)
.' Can be used with any type
or speed semiconductor
memory in any combination
. • Directly addresses 16K x 8
bits of memory (RAM, ROM,
or S.R.)
• Memory capacity can be
indefinitely expanded
through bank switching
using 110 instructions
• Address stack contains
eight 14-bit registers
(including program counter)
which permit nesting of
subroutines up to seven
levels
• Contains seven 8-bit
registers
• Interrupt. Capability
• Packaged in 18-Pin DIP
BLOCK DIAGRAM
DO
01 ALU
O2
03
04
05
06
07
INT
ROY
ACCUMULATOR,DATA
REGISTERS, PROG.
COUNTER STACK
TIMING
So S, S2
9, ¢2 SYNC
PIN CONFIGURATION
Voo
~0.....2
DATA
BUS
06
05
04
03
O2
0,
00 0..... 9
18 INTERRUPT
17 READY
16 9,
92
SYNC
13
12
11
10 Vee

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intellee
mADNmEWlO, EPASMYICARNODCINOEMXPPUETNESRIVSEYWSTAEYMS
From Intel, the people who invented the microcom-
puter, comes a new, inexpensive and easy way to
develop OEM microcomputer systems. The wide-
spread usage of low-cost microcomputers is made
possible by Inters MCS-4 four bit; and MCS-8 eight
bit, microcomputer sets. To make it easier to use
these microcomputer sets, Intel now offers complete
4-bit and 8-bit modular microcomputer development
systems called Intellec 4 and Intellec 8. The Intellec
modular microcomputers are self-contained expand-
able systems complete with central processor.
memory, 1/0, crystal clock, TTY interface, power
supplies, standard software, and a control and display
console.
The Intellec microcomputer development systems
feature:
• 4-bit and 8-bit parallel processor systems
• Program development using RAMS for easier
loading and modification
• Standard DMA channel
• Standard software package
• Crystal controlled clocks
• Expandable memory and I/O
• Control panel for system monitoring and program
debugging
• PROM programming capability
• Less time and cost for microcomputer systems
development
The Intellec 8 is an eight-bit modular microcomputer
development system with 5K bytes of memory, ex-
pandable to 16K bytes. At the h~art of this system is
the Intel 8008 CPU chip which has a repertoire of 48
instructions, seven working registers, an eight level
address stack, interrupt capability and direct address
capability to 16K bytes of memory.
The Intellec 4 is a four-bit modular microcomputer
development system with 5K bytes of program
memory. At the heart of this system is the Intel 4004
CPU chip with a repertoire of 45 instructions, sixteen
working registers, a four level address stack, and the
capability of directly addressing over 43K bits
of memory.
Standard Microcomputer Modules. The individual
modules used to develop the 4-bit and 8-bit micro-
computer systems are also available as off-the-shelf
microcomputer building blocks. These include 4-bit
and 8-bit CPU modules, 1/0 Modules, PROM
Programmer Modules, Data Storage Modules,
Control Modules, a Universal OEM Module and other
standard modules for expanding the Intellec systems
or developing pre-production systems.
With these modules you can tailor the components
to your specific microcomputer needs, buying as little
or as much as you need to do the job.
Write for complete details on the Intellec modular
microcomputer development systems. They will be
available in 120 days, but plan now. Intel Corporation,
3065 Bowers Avenue, Santa Clara, California 95051
(408) 246-7501.
intel®
deJivers.
Ad Reprint, June 1973
See Appendix VI

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CONTENTS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
Page No.
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Processor Timing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
A. State Control Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Timing ................................................
C. Cycle Control Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
4
5
Basic Functional Blocks
A. Instruction Register and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Arithmetic/Logic Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. I/O Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
7
7
7
7
Basic Instruction Set
A. Data and Instruction Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Summary of Processor Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Complete Functional Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Internal Processor Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
8
8
io
15
Processor Control Signals ..................................... .
A. Interrupt Signal . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Ready Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Specifications ..................................... .
A.. DC and Operating Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. AC Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Timing Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Typical DC Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E. Typical AC Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
18
20
21
22
23
23
23
23
The SIMS-01 - An MCS-S Micro Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. SI M8-0 1 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. SIM8-01 Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. System Description . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Normal Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E. SIM8-01 Pin Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
25
26
28
29
31
MCS-8 PROM Programming System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. General System Description and Operating Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. MP7-03 PROM Programmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Programming System Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
33
39
40
Micro Computer Program Development ........................... .
A. MCS-8 Software Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Development of a Microcomputer System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Execution of Programs from RAM on SI M8-01 Using
Memory Loader Control Programs ., .... '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44
44
46
47
MCBS-10 Microcomputer Interconnect and Control Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Appendices .............................................. .
I. SI M8 Hardware Assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II. MCS-8 Software Package - Assembler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Assembler Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Tymshare Users Guide for Assembly ......................... .
C. General Electric Users Guide for Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Sample Program Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III. MCS-8 Software Package - Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Basic Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. INTERP/8 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. I/O Formatting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E. Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV. Teletype Modifications for SIM8-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V. Programming Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Sample Program to Search a String of Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Teletype and Tape Reader Control Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Memory Chip Select Decodes and Output Test Program . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. RAM Test Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E. Bootstrap Loader Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VI. Intellec 8, Bare Bones 8, and Microcomputer Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ordering Information ....................................... .
A. Sales Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Ordering Information/Packaging Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
56
71
71
81
81
82
84
84
84
84
88
89
90
95
98
98
99
99
99 -
lOa
103
124
124
125
126
NOTICE: The circuits contained herein are suggested applications only. Intel Corporation makes no warranties whatsoever with respect to the com-
pleteness, accuracy, patent or copyright status; or applicability of the circuits to a user's requirements. The user is cautioned to check these circuits
for applicability to his specific situation prior to use. The user is further cautioned that in the event a patent or copyright claim is made against him
as a result of the use of these circuits, Intel shalf have no liability to user with respect to any such claim.