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data sheet
 K-L D 2
radar transceiver
Features
Applications
Description
Block Diagram
–– Small and low cost digital 24 GHz radar motion detector
–– Detection distance up to 15m (human) 30m (cars)
–– High immunity against interferences
–– Integrated FFT signal processing with digital outputs
–– Sensitivity and hold time can be set using analogue inputs
–– Advanced detection data read-out over serial interface
–– Wide power supply range from 3.2 to 5.5V
–– 2 × 4 patch antenna with 80°/  34° beam aperture
–– General movement detection applications
–– Door opener
–– Illumination of advertising boards
–– Touch free switches
–– Security systems
–– Indoor and outdoor lighting control applications
–– Object speed measurement systems
–– Industrial sensors
The K-LD2 is a fully digital and low cost radar movement detector.
The digital structure makes it very easy to use in any stand-alone
or MCU based application where a movement detection or speed
measurement is required.
The sensor includes a 2 × 4 patch radar front-end with an asymme-
trical beam and a powerful signal processing unit with two digital
outputs for signal detection information. The sensitivity and the hold
time are adjustable using analogue inputs with potentiometers. The
serial interface features a powerful command set to read-out advan-
ced detection data or to fully customize the detection algorithm.
There is no need to write own signal processing algorithms or
­handle small and noisy signals. This module contains every­thing
that is necessary to build a simple, yet reliable movement ­detector.
A very small footprint of 25 × 25 × 6.5 mm gives maximum flexibility
in the product development process.
A powerful evaluation kit (K-LD2-EVAL) with signal visualization
on a PC is available.
Figure 1: K-LD2 block diagram
K-L D2
Rx
Tx
24.125 GHz
voltage regulator
signal processing unit
detect
miscellaneous
serial interface
sensitivity hold time
     © RFbeam Microwave GmbH | Schuppisstrasse 7 | CH-9016 St. Gallen | www.rfbeam.ch | K-LD 2 | data sheet
09/2018 - Revision B | Page 1 / 20

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Characteristics
Parameter
Operating Conditions
Supply voltage
Supply current
Operating temperature
Storage temperature
Transmitter
Transmitter frequency
Frequency drift vs temperature
Output power
Spurious emission
Receiver
LNA gain
Mixer Conversion loss
Antenna gain
Receiver sensitivity
Overall sensitivity
Max. Detection distance
Signal Processing
Modulation
Velocity processing
Sample rate
Speed range
Response time
Antenna
Horizontal –3dB beamwidth
Vertical –3dB beamwidth
Horiz. Sidelobe suppression
Vertical sidelobe suppression
Interface
Digital Output high level voltage
Digital Output low level voltage
Digital Input high level voltage
Digital Input low level voltage
Digital I/O source/sink current
Analogue Input level
Analogue Input impedance
Body
Outline Dimensions
Weight
Connector
Conditions / Notes
Tamb  =  -20 ° C .. + 85 ° C
Vcc = 3.3 V
EIRP
According to ETSI 300 440
fIF = 1 kHz
fTX = 24.125 GHz
fIF = 500 Hz, B = 1 kHz, S / N = 6dB
fIF = 500 Hz, B = 1 kHz, S / N = 6dB
σ  =  1 m ² ( Person    )
Depending on sampling frequency
Depending on sampling frequency
and FFT average feature
E-Plane
H-Plane
Symbol Min Typ Max Unit
Vcc
Icc
Top
Tst
fTX
∆ fTX
PTX
PSpur
GLNA
Dmixer
GAnt
PRX
Dsystem
R
fsample
rspeed
tdetect
3.2
55
-20
-20
5.5
+85
+105
V
mA
° C
° C
24.050
0.02
+15
24.250
-30
GHz
MHz / °  C
dBm
dBm
20
6
8.6
-112
-127
20
dB
dB
dBi
dBm
dBc
m
1.28
0
20
none
256 point FFT
12.8
143
400
kHz
km / h
ms
Wφ
Wθ
Dφ
Dθ
VOH
VOL
VIH
VIL
IOH, IOL
VAin
Zin
80
34
-12 -20
-12 -20
°
°
dB
dB
2.1 2.6
V
0.3
0.64
V
2.0 3.3 V
-0.3 0.8 V
-20 20 mA
0 3V
200 kΩ
25 × 25 × 6.5
6.5
8 pin 2.54 mm
mm³
g
     © RFbeam Microwave GmbH | Schuppisstrasse 7 | CH-9016 St. Gallen | www.rfbeam.ch | K-LD 2 | data sheet
09/2018 - Revision B | Page 2 / 20

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TABLE OF
CONTENTS
Product Information 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applications 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blockdiagram 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Antenna Diagram Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Pin Configuration and Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Theory of operation 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sampling and FFT calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Start up time 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treshold generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Detection Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Reaction Time 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Stand-alone Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Host driven Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Speed measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Speed limitation and ranging.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Micro detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
FFT filter 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjust hold time and ­sensitivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Serial Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Command Set Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Command Classes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Command Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Error Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Command List 15.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command List 15.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outline Dimensions 20.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Order Information 20.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revision History 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
     © RFbeam Microwave GmbH | Schuppisstrasse 7 | CH-9016 St. Gallen | www.rfbeam.ch | K-LD 2 | data sheet
09/2018 - Revision B | Page 3 / 20

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ANTENNA DIAGRAM CHARACTERISTICS
This diagram shows module sensitivity (output voltage)
in both azimuth and elevation directions. It incorporates
the transmitter and receiver antenna characteristics.
Figure 2: Antenna characteristics
System diagram
330°
320°
340°
310°
300°
290°
280°
350°
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
270°
-70
10°
20°
30°
40°
50°
60°
70°
80°
90°
260°
100°
250°
110°
240°
120°
ere ausdrückliche Genehmigung
egeben werden. Zuwiderhandlung
ed! © RFbeam Microwave
2
230°
130°
220°
210°
3200°
190°
180°
Azimuth
170°
Elevation
160°
140°
150°
4
80°
34°
We reserve all rights in this document and its subject matter.
The recipient herby acknowledges these rights and assures the use of this
document only for the purpose it was delivered. © RFbeam Microwave
56
P I N C O N F I G U R AT I O N A N D F U N C T I OAN S
25.00 ±0.1
2.55 ±0.15
Table 1: Pin function description
7x2.54
8.64 ±0.25
Pin No. Name
Description
Figure 3: Pin configuration
2.30 ±0.15
1
2
3
4
5
6
20.20 ±07.1
8
2
GDeNtDecPt Oinut 1
VCC
RX
TX
Hold Time In
Sensitivity In
Misc. Out
3
Ground pin
Digital detection output.
­Signals a ­valid ­detection.
Low " no detection
High " valid detection
Power supply pin (3.2 to 5.5V)
Serial interface RX input
Serial interface TX output
Analogue hold time input. ­Range from 0 to 3V
0V " minimum hold time
3V " maximum hold time
ARnaanlgoegufreo6ms.e00n0stioti±v3i0tVy.i1nput.
0.75 ±0.1
0 V " minimum sensitivity
3V " maximum sensitivity
Digital miscellaneous output. The function
is programmable over the c­ ommand set with
the parameter S06.
In the factory setting this output signals the
direction of a valid detection.
Low " backward / receding movement
High " forward / approaching movem­ ent
This output is only valid toge­ther with a
high on pin 2 (valid detection) except if it
is configured as micro detec­tion output.
Project XX
YY
Object XX
YY
Material
Surface
Tolerance
State
Drawing Nr.
Prepared
Reviewed
4
5
Pin 1
B
C
RFbeam Microwave
Farbgutstrasse 3
9008 St. Gallen
Switzerland
Scale
2:1
Index
Format Blatt / Anz.
A4 1 / 1
Plotdate: 31.05.2017
      © RFbeam Microwave GmbH | Schuppisstrasse 7 | CH-9016 St. Gallen | www.rfbeam.ch | K-LD 2 | data sheet
09/2018 - Revision B |  Page 4 / 20

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THEORY OF OPERATION
Overview
The K-LD2 takes advantage of an internal I/Q doppler
signal processing by using a complex FFT ( Fast Fou-
rier Transform ). The main advantages of this proces-
sing compared to standard time domain processing
solutions are the following:
–– Easy detection of the direction of a movement
–– Increased detection range with better SNR
due to the FFT ­processing
–– Efficient interference suppression
–– Vibration suppression
The signal processing unit samples the analogue
I/Q doppler signals of the RF frontend and calculates
a  complex FFT in real time. In a next step an adap­
tive noise measurement and interference suppression
is done which generates a threshold limit that can be
adjusted with the sensitivity setting. Then the ­detection
algorithm looks for a valid detection and latches it to
the detection register and the digital outputs for the
length of the hold time setting.
Figure 4: Signal processing and detection workflow
Sampling & FFT calculation
–– I / Q channel
–– Configurable sample rate
–– 256 point complex FFT
Threshold generation
–– Adaptive noise measurement
–– Interference suppression
–– Depending on sensitivity setting
Detection algorithm
–– Search for valid detection
–– Direction, speed & magnitude
calculation
–– Latch detection for the length
of the hold time setting
With a powerful command set (See chapter Command
Set Description) it is possible to ­configure the  whole
signal processing and detection w­ orkflow. This allows
customisation of the K-LD2 to get the best results in
different environments and ­applications.
      © RFbeam Microwave GmbH | Schuppisstrasse 7 | CH-9016 St. Gallen | www.rfbeam.ch | K-LD 2 | data sheet
09/2018 - Revision B |  Page 5 / 20