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VISHAY
Basic Definitions
Vishay Semiconductors
Basic Sinterglass Diode Parameters
The major parameters for the selection of the appro-
priate sinterglass diodes are the maximum reverse
voltage (VRRM), the average forward current (IFAV)
and for switching application the reverse recovery
characteristic (trr), too. Additional parameters may be
for example the reverse avalanche energy capability
(ER) and forward surge capability (IFSM) etc.
VR
VRRM
V(BR)R
IR
IF
VF
IFAV
Reverse voltage
Repetitive peak reverse voltage, including all repeated reverse transient voltages
Reverse breakdown voltage
Reverse (leakage) current, at a specified reverse voltage VR and temperature TJ
Forward current
Forward voltage drop, at a specified forward current IF and temperature TJ
Average forward output current, at a specified current waveform (normally 10ms/50Hz half-sine-
wave, sometimes 8.3ms/60Hz half-sine-wave), a specified reverse voltage and a specified mounting
condition (e.g. lead-length = 10mm or PCB mounted with certain pads and distance)
IFSM
Peak forward surge current, with a specified current waveform (normally 10ms/50Hz half-sine-wave,
sometimes 8.3ms/60Hz half-sine-wave),
trr Reverse recovery time, at a specified forward current (normally 0.5A), a specified reverse current
(normally 1.0A) and specified measurement conditions (normally from 0 to 0.25A)
ER Reverse avalanche energy, non-repetitive
Polarity Conventions
The voltage direction is given
• by an arrow which points from the measuring point
to the reference point
or
• by a two letter subscript, where the first letter is the
measuring point and the second letter is the refer-
ence point.
In the case of alternating voltages, once the voltage
direction is selected it is maintained throughout. The
alternating character of the quantity is given with the
time dependent change in sign of its numerical values
.
A I1 B
A I2 = –I1
B
AA A
94 9316
V1 VAB
V2=–V1=VBA=–VAB
Figure 2.
B B B 94 9315
Figure 1.
The numerical value of the voltage is positive if the
potential at the arrow tail is higher than at the arrow
head; i.e., the potential difference from the measuring
point (A) to the reference point (B) is positive.
The numerical value of the voltage is negative if the
potential at the arrow head is higher than the tail; i.e.,
the potential difference from the measuring point to
the reference point is negative.
The numerical value of the current is positive if the
charge of the carriers moving in the direction of the
arrow is positive (conventional current direction), or if
the charge of the carriers moving against this direc-
tion is negative. The numerical value of the current is
negative if the charge of the carriers moving in the
direction of the arrow is negative, or if the charge of
the carriers moving against this direction is positive.
The general rules stated above are also valid for alter-
nating quantities. Once the direction is selected, it is
maintained throughout. The alternating character of
the quantity is given with the time-dependent change
in sign of its numerical values.
Document Number 84067
Rev. 7, 07-Jan-03
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Vishay Semiconductors
VISHAY
Polarity conventions for diodes
Here, the direction of arrows is selected in such a way
that the numerical values of currents and voltages are
positive both for forward (F or f) and reverse (R or r)
directions.
A IF
K
VF
A IR K
VR
Figure 3.
Arrangement of Symbols
Letter symbols for current, voltage and power
(according to DIN 41 785, sheet 1)
To represent current, voltage and power, a system of
basic letter symbols is used. Capital letters are used
for the representation of peak, mean, DC or root-
mean-square values. Lower case letters are used for
the representation of instantaneous values which
vary with time.
Capital letters are used as subscripts to represent
continuous or total values, while lower case letters are
used to represent varying values.
The following table summarizes the rules given above
.
Basic letter
Upper-case
Upper-case
Instantaneous values which
vary with time
Maximum (peak) average
(mean) continuous (DC) or
root-mean-square (RMS)
values
Subscript(s)
Upper-case
Upper-case
Varying component alone, i.e.,
instantaneous,
root-mean-square, maximum
or average values
Continuous (without signal) or
total (instantaneous, average or
maximum) values
Letter symbols for impedance, admittances, two-
port parameters etc.
For impedance, admittance, two-port parameters,
etc. capital letters are used for the representation of
external circuits of which the device is only a part.
Lower case letters are used for the representation of
electrical parameters inherent in the device.
CAPITAL letters are used as subscripts for the desig-
nation of static (DC) values, while lower case letters
are used for the designation of small-signal values.
If more than one subscript is used (hFE, hfe), the letter
symbols are either all capital or all lower case.
If the subscript has numeric (single, double, etc.) as
well as letter symbol(s) (such as h21E or h21e'), the dif-
ferentiation between static and small-signal value is
made only by a subscript letter symbol.
Other quantities (values) which deviate from the
above rules are given in the list of letter symbols.
The following table summarizes the rules given above
.
Basic letter
Upper-case
Upper-case
Electrical parameters inherent
in the semiconductor devices
except inductances and
capacitances
Electrical parameters of
external circuits and of circuits
in which the semiconductor
device forms only a part; all
inductances and capacitances
Upper-case
Small-signal values
Subscript(s)
Upper-case
Static (dc) values
Examples:
GP Power gain
ZS Source impedance
fT Transition frequency
IF Forward current
Example for the use of symbols
according to 41785 and IEC 148
VF
VFSM
VFRM
VFWM
0
VRWM
VRRM
VRSM
VR
t
93 7796
Figure 4.
VF Forward voltage
VR Reverse voltage
VFSM Surge forward voltage (non-repetitive)
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Vishay Semiconductors
VRSM Surge reverse voltage (non-repetitive)
VFRM Repetitive peak forward voltage
VRRM Repetitive peak reverse voltage
VFWM Crest working forward voltage
VRWM Crest working reverse voltage
List of Symbols
A Anode
a Distance (in mm)
bpn Normalized power factor
C Capacitance, general
Ccase Case capacitance
CD Diode capacitance
Ci Junction capacitance
CL Load capacitance
CP Parallel capacitance
ER Reverse avalanche energy, non-repetitive
F Noise figure
f Frequency
fg Cut-off-frequency
g Conductance
K Kelvin, absolute temperature
IF Forward current
iF Forward current, instantaneous total value
IFAV Average forward current, rectified current
IFRM Repetitive peak forward current
IFSM Surge forward current, non-repetitive
IFWM Crest working forward current
IR Reverse current
IRM Maximum reverse current
iR Reverse current, instantaneous total value
IRAV Average reverse current
IRRM Repetitive peak reverse current
IRSM Non-repetitive peak reverse current
IRWM Crest working reverse current
IS Supply current
IZ Z-operating current
IZM Z-maximum current
l Length (in mm), (case-holder/soldering point)
LOCEP (local epitaxy)
A registrated trade mark of TEMIC for a pro-
cess of epitaxial deposition on silicon. Applica-
tions occur in planer Z-diodes. It has an
advantage compared to the normal process,
with improved reverse current.
P Power
PR Reverse Power
Ptot Total power dissipation
PV Power dissipation, general
Pvp Pulse-power dissipation
Q Quality
Qrr Reverse recovery charge
RF Forward resistance
rf Differential forward resistance
RL Load resistor
rP Parallel resistance, damping resistance
RR Reverse resistance
rr Differential reverse resistance
rs Series resistance
RthJA Thermal resistance between junction and
ambient
RthJC Thermal resistance between junction and case
RthJL Thermal resistance junction lead
rz Differential Z-resistance in breakdown region
(range) rz = rzj + rzth
rzj Z-resistance at constant junction temperature,
inherent Z-resistance
rzth Thermal part of the Z-resistance
T Temperature, measured in centigrade
T Absolute temperature, Kelvin temperature
T Period duration
Tamb Ambient temperature (range)
tav Integration time
Tcase Case temperature
tfr Forward recovery time
Tj Junction temperature
TK Temperature coefficient
TL Connecting lead temperature in the holder (sol-
dering point) at the distance/(mm) from case
tt-TP-p-
Pulse duration (time)
Duty cycle
tr Rise time
trr Reverse recovery time
ts Storage time
Tsd Soldering temperature
Tstg Storage temperature (range)
V(BR) Breakdown voltage
VF Forward voltage
VF Forward voltage, instantaneous total value
VFAV Average forward voltage
Vo Rectified voltage
VFP Turn on transient peak voltage
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Vishay Semiconductors
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VFSM Surge forward voltage, non-repetitive
VFRM Repetitive peak forward voltage
VFWM Crest working forward voltage
VHF RF voltage, RMS value
VHF RF voltage, peak value
VR Reverse voltage
VR Reverse voltage, instantaneous total value
VRSM Surge reverse voltage, non-repetitive
VRRM Repetitive peak reverse voltage
VRWM Crest working reverse voltage
VS Supply voltage
VT Temperature voltage
VZ Z-operating voltage
Zthp Thermal resistance - pulse operation
ϕ Angle of current flow
ηr Rectification efficiency
To Time constant
CD Capacitance deviation
Data Sheet Construction
Data sheet information is generally presented in the
following sequence:
• Device description
• Absolute maximum ratings
• Thermal data - thermal resistances
• Characteristics, switching characteristics
• Electrical characteristics
• Dimensions (mechanical data)
Additional information on device performance is pro-
vided where necessary.
Device Description
The following information is provided: part number,
semiconductor materials used, sequence of zones,
technology used, device type and, if necessary con-
struction.
Also, information on the typical Applications and spe-
cial Features is given
Absolute Maximum Ratings
The absolute maximum ratings indicate the maximum
permissible operational and environmental condi-
tions. Exceeding any one of these conditions could
result in the destruction of the device. Unless other-
wise specified, an ambient temperature of 25°C ±
3°C is assumed for all absolute maximum ratings.
Most absolute ratings are static characteristics; if they
are measured by a pulse method, the associated
measurement conditions are stated.
Maximum ratings are absolute
(i.e., not interdependent).
Any equipment incorporating semiconductor devices
must be designed so that even under the most unfa-
vorable operating conditions the specified maximum
ratings of the devices used are never exceeded.
These ratings could be exceeded because of
changes in:
• Supply voltage
• The properties of other components used in the
equipment
• Control settings
• Load conditions
• Drive level
• Environmental conditions
• The properties of the devices themselves (aging)
Thermal Data - Thermal Resistances
Some thermal data (e.g., junction temperature, stor-
age temperature range, total power dissipation),
impose a limit on the application range of the device,
and are given under the heading "Absolute Maximum
Ratings".
A special section is provided for thermal resistances.
Temperature coefficients, on the other hand, are
listed together with the associated parameters under
„Characteristics, Switching Characteristics“.
Characteristics, Switching Characteristics
Under this heading, the most important operational
electrical characteristics (minimum, typical and maxi-
mum values) are grouped together with associated
test conditions supplemented with graphs.
Dimensions (Mechanical Data)
Important dimensions and the sequence of connec-
tions supplemented by a circuit diagram are included
in the mechanical data. Case outline drawings carry
DIN, JEDEC or commercial designations. Information
on weight complete is also included.
Note:
If the dimension information does not include any tol-
erances, then lead length and mounting hole dimen-
sions are minimum values. All other dimensions are
maximum.
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Additional Information
Not for new developments: This heading indicates
that the device concerned should not be used in
equipment under development. It is, however, avail-
able for devices presently in production.
Vishay Semiconductors
Document Number 84067
Rev. 7, 07-Jan-03
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