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APPLICATION NOTE
AVA I L A B L E
X25160
AN61
16K
X25160
2K x 8 Bit
SPI Serial E2PROM With Block LockTM Protection
FEATURES
• 2MHz Clock Rate
• SPI Modes (0,0 & 1,1)
• 2K X 8 Bits
— 32 Byte Page Mode
• Low Power CMOS
— <1µA Standby Current
— <5mA Active Current
• 2.7V To 5.5V Power Supply
• Block Lock Protection
— Protect 1/4, 1/2 or all of E2PROM Array
• Built-in Inadvertent Write Protection
— Power-Up/Power-Down protection circuitry
— Write Enable Latch
— Write Protect Pin
• Self-Timed Write Cycle
— 5ms Write Cycle Time (Typical)
• High Reliability
— Endurance: 100,000 cycles
— Data Retention: 100 Years
— ESD protection: 2000V on all pins
• 8-Lead PDlP Package
• 8-Lead SOIC Package
• 14-Lead TSSOP Package
DESCRIPTION
The X25160 is a CMOS 16384-bit serial E2PROM,
internally organized as 2K x 8. The X25160 features a
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) and software protocol
allowing operation on a simple three-wire bus. The bus
signals are a clock input (SCK) plus separate data in (SI)
and data out (SO) lines. Access to the device is con-
trolled through a chip select (CS) input, allowing any
number of devices to share the same bus.
The X25160 also features two additional inputs that
provide the end user with added flexibility. By asserting
the HOLD input, the X25160 will ignore transitions on its
inputs, thus allowing the host to service higher priority
interrupts. The WP input can be used as a hardwire input
to the X25160 disabling all write attempts to the status
register, thus providing a mechanism for limiting end
user capability of altering 0, 1/4, 1/2 or all of the memory.
The X25160 utilizes Xicor’s proprietary Direct Write™
cell, providing a minimum endurance of 100,000 cycles
and a minimum data retention of 100 years.
FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM
SO
SI
SCK
CS
HOLD
STATUS
REGISTER
COMMAND
DECODE
AND
CONTROL
LOGIC
WRITE
PROTECT
LOGIC
X DECODE
LOGIC
16
16
32
2K BYTE
ARRAY
16 X 256
16 X 256
32 X 256
WRITE
CONTROL
AND
WP TIMING
LOGIC
Direct Write™ and Block Lock™ Protection is a trademark of Xicor, Inc.
©Xicor, Inc. 1994, 1995, 1996 Patents Pending
3064-3.9 6/11/96 T4/C1/D0 NS
1
32 8
Y DECODE
DATA REGISTER
3064 ILL F01
Characteristics subject to change without notice

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X25160
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Serial Output (SO)
SO is a push/pull serial data output pin. During a read
cycle, data is shifted out on this pin. Data is clocked out
by the falling edge of the serial clock.
Serial Input (SI)
SI is the serial data input pin. All opcodes, byte
addresses, and data to be written to the memory are
input on this pin. Data is latched by the rising edge of the
serial clock.
Serial Clock (SCK)
The Serial Clock controls the serial bus timing for data
input and output. Opcodes, addresses, or data present
on the SI pin are latched on the rising edge of the clock
input, while data on the SO pin change after the falling
edge of the clock input.
Chip Select (CS)
When CS is HIGH, the X25160 is deselected and the SO
output pin is at high impedance and unless an internal
write operation is underway, the X25160 will be in the
standby power mode. CS LOW enables the X25160,
placing it in the active power mode. It should be noted
that after power-up, a HIGH to LOW transition on CS is
required prior to the start of any operation.
Write Protect (WP)
When WP is LOW and the nonvolatile bit WPEN is “1”,
nonvolatile writes to the X25160 status register are
disabled, but the part otherwise functions normally.
When WP is held HIGH, all functions, including nonvola-
tile writes operate normally. WP going LOW while CS is
still LOW will interrupt a write to the X25160 status
register. If the internal write cycle has already been
initiated, WP going LOW will have no effect on a write.
The WP pin function is blocked when the WPEN bit in
the status register is “0”. This allows the user to install the
X25160 in a system with WP pin grounded and still be
able to write to the status register. The WP pin functions
will be enabled when the WPEN bit is set “1”.
Hold (HOLD)
HOLD is used in conjunction with the CS pin to select the
device. Once the part is selected and a serial sequence
is underway, HOLD may be used to pause the serial
communication with the controller without resetting the
serial sequence. To pause, HOLD must be brought
LOW while SCK is LOW. To resume communication,
HOLD is brought HIGH, again while SCK is LOW. If the
pause feature is not used, HOLD should be held HIGH
at all times.
PIN CONFIGURATION
CS
SO
WP
VSS
DIP/SOIC
18
2 X25160 7
36
45
VCC
HOLD
SCK
SI
CS
SO
NC
NC
NC
WP
VSS
TSSOP
1 14
2 13
3 12
4 X25160 11
5 10
69
78
VCC
HOLD
NC
NC
NC
SCK
SI
3064 ILL F02.2
PIN NAMES
SYMBOL
CS
SO
SI
SCK
WP
VSS
VCC
HOLD
NC
DESCRIPTION
Chip Select Input
Serial Output
Serial Input
Serial Clock Input
Write Protect Input
Ground
Supply Voltage
Hold Input
No Connect
3064 PGM T01
2

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X25160
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
The X25160 is a 2K x 8 E2PROM designed to interface
directly with the synchronous serial peripheral interface
(SPI) of many popular microcontroller families.
The X25160 contains an 8-bit instruction register. It is
accessed via the SI input, with data being clocked in on
the rising SCK. CS must be LOW and the HOLD and WP
inputs must be HIGH during the entire operation. The
WP input is “Don’t Care” if WPEN is set “0”.
Table 1 contains a list of the instructions and their
opcodes. All instructions, addresses and data are trans-
ferred MSB first.
Data input is sampled on the first rising edge of SCK after
CS goes LOW. SCK is static, allowing the user to stop
the clock and then resume operations. If the clock line is
shared with other peripheral devices on the SPI bus, the
user can assert the HOLD input to place the X25160 into
a “PAUSE” condition. After releasing HOLD, the X25160
will resume operation from the point when HOLD was
first asserted.
Write Enable Latch
The X25160 contains a “write enable” latch. This latch
must be SET before a write operation will be completed
internally. The WREN instruction will set the latch and
the WRDI instruction will reset the latch. This latch is
automatically reset upon a power-up condition and after
the completion of a byte, page, or status register write
cycle.
Status Register
The RDSR instruction provides access to the status
register. The status register may be read at any time,
even during a write cycle. The status register is format-
ted as follows:
7 654 3
2 10
WPEN X X X BP1 BP0 WEL WIP
3064 PGM T02
WPEN, BP0 and BP1 are set by the WRSR instruction.
WEL and WIP are read-only and automatically set by
other operations.
The Write-In-Process (WIP) bit indicates whether the
X25160 is busy with a write operation. When set to a “1”,
a write is in progress, when set to a “0”, no write is in
progress. During a write, all other bits are set to “1”.
The Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit indicates the status of
the “write enable” latch. When set to a “1”, the latch is set,
when set to a “0”, the latch is reset.
The Block Protect (BP0 and BP1) bits are nonvolatile
and allow the user to select one of four levels of protec-
tion. The X25160 is divided into four 4096-bit segments.
One, two, or all four of the segments may be protected.
That is, the user may read the segments but will be
unable to alter (write) data within the selected segments.
The partitioning is controlled as illustrated below.
Status Register Bits
BP1 BP0
00
01
10
11
Array Addresses
Protected
None
$0600–$07FF
$0400–$07FF
$0000–$07FF
3064 PGM T03
Table 1. Instruction Set
Instruction Name Instruction Format*
Operation
WREN
0000 0110
Set the Write Enable Latch (Enable Write Operations)
WRDI
0000 0100
Reset the Write Enable Latch (Disable Write Operations)
RDSR
0000 0101
Read Status Register
WRSR
0000 0001
Write Status Register
READ
0000 0011
Read Data from Memory Array beginning at selected
address
WRITE
0000 0010
Write Data to Memory Array beginning at Selected Address
(1 to 32 Bytes)
*Instructions are shown MSB in leftmost position. Instructions are transferred MSB first.
3064 PGM T04
3

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X25160
Write-Protect Enable
The Write-Protect-Enable (WPEN) is available for the
X25160 as a nonvolatile enable bit for the WP pin.
Protected Unprotected Status
WPEN WP WEL Blocks
Blocks Register
0 X 0 Protected Protected Protected
0 X 1 Protected Writable Writable
1 LOW 0 Protected Protected Protected
1 LOW 1 Protected Writable Protected
X HIGH 0 Protected Protected Protected
X HIGH 1 Protected Writable Writable
3064 PGM T05.1
The Write Protect (WP) pin and the nonvolatile Write
Protect Enable (WPEN) bit in the Status Register control
the programmable hardware write protect feature. Hard-
ware write protection is enabled when WP pin is LOW,
and the WPEN bit is “1”. Hardware write protection is
disabled when either the WP pin is HIGH or the WPEN
bit is “0”. When the chip is hardware write protected,
nonvolatile writes are disabled to the Status Register,
including the Block Protect bits and the WPEN bit itself,
as well as the block-protected sections in the memory
array. Only the sections of the memory array that are not
block-protected can be written.
Note: Since the WPEN bit is write protected, it
cannot be changed back to a “0”, as long as
the WP pin is held LOW.
Clock and Data Timing
Data input on the SI line is latched on the rising edge of
SCK. Data is output on the SO line by the falling edge of
SCK.
Read Sequence
When reading from the E2PROM memory array, CS is
first pulled LOW to select the device. The 8-bit READ
instruction is transmitted to the X25160, followed by the
16-bit address of which the last 11 are used. After the
READ opcode and address are sent, the data stored in
the memory at the selected address is shifted out on the
SO line. The data stored in memory at the next address
can be read sequentially by continuing to provide clock
pulses. The address is automatically incremented to the
next higher address after each byte of data is shifted out.
When the highest address is reached ($07FF) the
address counter rolls over to address $0000 allowing
the read cycle to be continued indefinitely. The read
operation is terminated by taking CS HIGH. Refer to the
read E2PROM array operation sequence illustrated in
Figure 1.
To read the status register the CS line is first pulled LOW
to select the device followed by the 8-bit RDSR instruc-
tion. After the RDSR opcode is sent, the contents of the
status register are shifted out on the SO line. The read
status register sequence is illustrated in Figure 2.
Write Sequence
Prior to any attempt to write data into the X25160, the
“write enable” latch must first be set by issuing the
WREN instruction (See Figure 3). CS is first taken LOW,
then the WREN instruction is clocked into the X25160.
After all eight bits of the instruction are transmitted, CS
must then be taken HIGH. If the user continues the write
operation without taking CS HIGH after issuing the
WREN instruction, the write operation will be ignored.
To write data to the E2PROM memory array, the user
issues the WRITE instruction, followed by the address
and then the data to be written. This is minimally a
thirty-two clock operation. CS must go LOW and remain
LOW for the duration of the operation. The host may
continue to write up to 32 bytes of data to the X25160.
The only restriction is the 32 bytes must reside on the
same page. If the address counter reaches the end of
the page and the clock continues, the counter will “roll
over” to the first address of the page and overwrite any
data that may have been written.
For the write operation (byte or page write) to be
completed, CS can only be brought HIGH after bit 0 of
data byte N is clocked in. If it is brought HIGH at any other
time the write operation will not be completed. Refer to
Figures 4 and 5 below for a detailed illustration of the
write sequences and time frames in which CS going
HIGH are valid.
To write to the status register, the WRSR instruction is
followed by the data to be written. Data bits 0, 1, 4, 5 and
6 must be “0”. This sequence is shown in Figure 6.
While the write is in progress following a status register or
E2PROM write sequence, the status register may be read to
check the WIP bit. During this time the WIP bit will be HIGH.
Hold Operation
The HOLD input should be HIGH (at VIH) under normal
operation. If a data transfer is to be interrupted HOLD
can be pulled LOW to suspend the transfer until it can be
resumed. The only restriction is the SCK input must be
LOW when HOLD is first pulled LOW and SCK must also
be LOW when HOLD is released.
The HOLD input may be tied HIGH either directly to VCC
or tied to VCC through a resistor.
4

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X25160
Operational Notes
The X25160 powers-up in the following state:
• The device is in the low power standby state.
• A HIGH to LOW transition on CS is required to
enter an active state and receive an instruction.
• SO pin is high impedance.
• The “write enable” latch is reset.
Data Protection
The following circuitry has been included to prevent
inadvertent writes:
• The “write enable” latch is reset upon power-up.
• A WREN instruction must be issued to set the “write
enable” latch.
CS must come HIGH at the proper clock count in
order to start a write cycle.
Figure 1. Read E2PROM Array Operation Sequence
CS
SCK
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
INSTRUCTION
16 BIT ADDRESS
SI
15 14 13
3210
HIGH IMPEDANCE
SO
76
MSB
DATA OUT
543210
3064 ILL F03
Figure 2. Read Status Register Operation Sequence
CS
SCK
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
INSTRUCTION
SI
HIGH IMPEDANCE
SO
76
MSB
DATA OUT
543210
3064 ILL F04
5