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TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
U209B3/ U209B3–FP
Phase Control Circuit – Tacho Applications
Description:
The integrated circuit U209B3, is designed as a phase
control circuit in bipolar technology. It has also protection
circuit for the supply. Due to integration of many
functions, it leads to significant cost and space saving as
well as increased reliability. At the same time, it gives the
designer free hand to select varieties of regulators to
choose from and switching characteristics according to its
choice.
Features
D Internal frequency to voltage converter
D Externally controlled integrated amplifier
D Automatic soft start with minimised ”dead time”
D Voltage and current synchronisation
D Retriggering
D Triggering pulse typ. 155 mA
D Internal supply voltage monitoring
D Temperature compensated reference source
D Current requirement 3 mA
Package: DIP14, SO16
14(16)
1(1)
Voltage / Current
detector
Automatic
retriggering
Output
pulse
4(4)
10(10)
+
Control
amplifier
9(9)
Phase
control unit
ö = f (V12)
Supply
voltage
limitation
Reference
voltage
Voltage
monitoring
5(5)
6(6)
3(3) –VS
2(2)
GND
13(15)
Rev. A1: 01.09.1995
s
11(11)
Soft start
12(12)
Frequency
to voltage
converter
8(8) 7(7)
Figure 1. Block diagram – SO 16 in bracket
Preliminary Information
95 10691
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TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
U209B3/ U209B3–FP
Figure 2. Block diagram with typical circuitry for speed regulation
Rev. A1: 01.09.1995
Preliminary Information
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U209B3/U209B3–FP
TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
Description
Mains Supply
The U209B is designed with voltage limiting and can
therefore be supplied directly from the mains. The supply
voltage between Pin 2 (+ pol/ă) and Pin 3 builds up
across D1 and R1 and is smoothed by C1. The value of the
series resistance can be approximated using (Figure 2):
R1 =
VM – Vs
2 IS
Further information regarding the design of the mains
supply can be found in the data sheets in the appendix.
The reference voltage source on Pin 13 of typ. –8.9 V is
derived from the supply voltage and represents the refer-
ence level of the control unit.
Operation using an externally stabilised DC voltage is not
recommended.
If the supply cannot be taken directly from the mains
because the power dissipation in R1 would be too large,
then the circuit shown in the following Figure 3 should be
employed.
~
24 V~
U211B
12345
R1 C1
95 10362
Figure 3. Supply voltage for high current requirements
Phase Control
The function of the phase control is largely identical to
that of the well known integrated circuit U211B. The
phase angle of the trigger pulse is derived by comparing
the ramp voltage, which is mains synchronised by the
voltage detector, with the set value on the control input
Pin 4. The slope of the ramp is determined by C2 and its
charging current. The charging current can be varied
using R2 on Pin 5. The maximum phase angle amax can
also be adjusted using R2.
When the potential on Pin 6 reaches the nominal value
predetermined at Pin 11, then a trigger pulse is generated
whose width tp is determined by the value of C2 (the value
of C2 and hence the pulse width can be evaluated by
assuming 8 ms/nF.
The current sensor on Pin 1 ensures that, for operation
with inductive loads, no pulse will be generated in a new
half cycle as long as current from the previous half cycle
is still flowing in the opposite direction to the supply
voltage at that instant. This makes sure that ”Gaps” in the
load current are prevented.
The control signal on Pin 11 can be in the range 0 V to
–7 V (reference point Pin 2).
If V11 = –7 V then the phase angle is at maximum = amax
i. e. the current flow angle is a minimum. The minimum
phase angle amin is when V11 = Vpin2.
Voltage Monitoring
As the voltage is built up, uncontrolled output pulses are
avoided by internal voltage surveillance. At the same
time, all of the latches in the circuit (phase control, soft
start) are reset and the soft–start capacitor is short
circuited. Used with a switching hysteresis of 300 mV,
this system guarantees defined start–up behaviour each
time the supply voltage is switched on or after short
interruptions of the mains supply.
Soft–Start
As soon as the supply voltage builds up (t1), the integrated
soft–start is initiated. The figure below shows the
behaviour of the voltage across the soft–start capacitor
and is identical with the voltage on the phase control input
on Pin 11. This behaviour guarantees a gentle start–up for
the motor and automatically ensures the optimum run–up
time.
C3 is first charged up to the starting voltage Vo with
typically 30 mA current (t2). By then reducing the
charging current to approx. 4 mA, the slope of the charging
function is substantially reduced so that the rotational
speed of the motor only slowly increases. The charging
current then increases as the voltage across C3 increases
giving a progressively rising charging function which
more and more strongly accelerates the motor with
increasing rotational speed. The charging function
determines the acceleration up to the set–point. The
charging current can have a maximum value of 50 mA.
4 (15)
Preliminary Information
Rev. A1: 31.09.1995

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TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
U209B3/ U209B3–FP
VC3
V1
2
95 10272
V0
t
1
t
2
t
3
ttot
t
Figure 4. Soft–start
Frequency to Voltage Converter
The internal frequency to voltage converter
(f/V-converter) generates a DC signal on Pin 9 which is
proportional to the rotational speed using an AC signal
from a tacho–generator or a light beam whose frequency
is in turn dependent on the rotational speed. The high
impedance input with a switch–on threshold of typ. –
100 mV gives very reliable operation even when
relatively simple tacho–generators are employed. The
tacho-frequency is given by:
n
f = p[Hz]
60
n = revolutions per minute
p = number of pulses per revolution
The converter is based on the charge pumping principle.
With each negative half wave of the input signal, a
quantity of charge determined by C5 is internally
amplified and then integrated by C6 at the converter
output on Pin 9. The conversion constant is determined
by C5, its charging voltage of Vch, R6 (Pin 9) and the
internally adjusted charge amplification Gi.
k = Gi . C5 . R6 . Vch
The analog output voltage is given by
Vo = k . f.
whereas: Vch = 6.7 V
Gi = 8.3
The values of C5 and C6 must be such that for the highest
possible input frequency, the maximum output voltage
does V0 does not exceed 6 V. While C5 is charging up the
Ri on Pin 8 is approx. 6 kΩ. To obtain good linearity of the
f/V converter the time constant resulting from Ri and C5
should be considerably less (1/5) than the time span of the
negative half cycle for the highest possible input
frequency. The amount of remaining ripple on the output
voltage on Pin 9 is dependent on C5, C6 and the internal
charge amplification.
Vo =
Gi . Vch . C5
C6
The ripple Vo can be reduced by using larger values of
C6, however, the maximum conversion speed will than
also be reduced.
The value of this capacitor should be chosen to fit the
particular control loop where it is going to be used.
Control Amplifier
The integrated control amplifier with differential input
compares the set value (Pin 10) with the instantaneous
value on Pin 9 and generates a regulating voltage on the
output Pin 11 (together with external circuitry on Pin 12)
which always tries to hold the real voltage at the value of
the set voltages. The amplifier has a transmittance of typi-
cally 110 mA/V and a bipolar current source output on Pin
11 which operates with typically ±100 mA. The
amplification and frequency response are determined by
R7, C7, C8 and R8 (can be left out). For operation as a
power divider, C4, C5, R6, C6, R7, C7, C8 and R8 can be
left out. Pin 9 should be connected with Pin 11 and Pin 7
with Pin 2. The phase angle of the triggering pulse can be
adjusted using the voltage on Pin 10. An internal limiting
circuit prevents the voltage on Pin 11 from becoming
more negative than V13 + 1 V.
Pulse Output Stage
The pulse output stage is short circuit protected and can
typically deliver currents of 125 mA. For the design of
smaller triggering currents, the function IGT = f (RGT) has
been given in the data sheets in the appendix.
Automatic Retriggering
The automatic retriggering prevents half cycles without
current flow, even if the triacs is turned off earlier e.g. due
to not exactly centred collector (brush lifter) or in the
event of unsuccessful triggering. If it is necessary, another
triggering pulse is generated after a time lapse of
tPP = 4.5 tP and this is repeated until either the triac fires
or the half cycle finishes.
Rev. A1: 01.09.1995
Preliminary Information
5 (15)

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U209B3/U209B3–FP
TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
General Hints and Explanation of Terms
To ensure safe and trouble–free operation, the following
points should be taken into consideration when circuits
are being constructed or in the design of printed circuit
boards.
D The connecting lines from C2 to Pin 6 and Pin 2 should
be as short as possible, and the connection to Pin 2
should not carry any additional high current such as
the load current. When selecting C2, a low tempera-
ture coefficient is desirable.
D The common (earth) connections of the set–point gen-
erator, the tacho–generator and the final interference
suppression capacitor C4 of the f/V converter should
not carry load current.
D The tacho generator should be mounted without
influence by strong stray fields from the motor.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Reference point Pin 2, unless otherwise specified
Parameters
Current requirement
t 10 ms
Pin 3
Synchronisation current
Pin 1
t < 10 ms
t < 10 ms
Pin 14
Pin 1
Pin 14
f/V converter:
Input current
t < 10 ms
Pin 7
Phase control:
Pin 11
Input voltage
Input current
Soft–start:
Input voltage
Pin 12
Pulse output:
Reverse voltage
Pin 4
Amplifier
Input voltage
Pin 10
Pin 8 open
Pin 9
Reference voltage source
Output current
Pin 13
Power dissipation
Storage temperature range
Tamb = 45 °C
Tamb = 80 °C
Junction temperature
Ambient temperature range
V
Mains
Supply
VGT
95 10716
p/2 p 3/2p 2p
Trigger
Pulse
tp tpp = 4.5 tp
VL
Load
Voltage
IL
Load
Current
f
F
Figure 5. Explanation of terms in phase relationship
Symbol
–IS
–iS
IsyncI
IsyncV
±ii
±iv
Ieff
±ii
–VI
±II
–VI
VR
–VI
–VI
Io
Ptot
Tstg
Tj
Tamb
Value
30
100
5
5
35
35
3
13
0 to 7
500
|V13| to 0
VS to 5
|VS|
|V13| to 0
7.5
570
320
–40 to +125
125
–10 to +100
Unit
mA
mA
mA
V
mA
V
V
V
mA
mW
°C
6 (15)
Preliminary Information
Rev. A1: 31.09.1995