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U2402B
Fast Charge Controller for NiCd/NiMH Batteries
Description
The fast-charge battery controller circuit, U2402B, uses
bipolar technology. The IC enables the designer to create
an efficient and economic charge system. The U2402B
incorporates intelligent multiple-gradient battery-
voltage monitoring and mains phase control for power
management. With automatic top-off charging, the
integrated circuit ensures that the charge device stops
regular charging, before the critical stage of overcharging
is achieved. It has two LED driver indications for charge
and temperature status.
Features
D Multiple gradient monitoring
D Temperature window (Tmin/Tmax)
D Exact battery voltage measurement without charge
D Phase control for charge-current regulation
D Top-off and trickle charge function
D Two LED outputs for charge status indication
D Disabling of d2V/dt2 switch-off criteria
during battery formation
D Battery-voltage check
Applications
D Portable power tools
D Laptop/notebook personal computer
D Cellular/cordless phones
D Emergency lighting systems
D Hobby equipment
D Camcorder
Package: DIP18, SO20
18 (20) 17 (19) 16 (18)
14 (15)
13 (14)
12 (13) 11 (12)
4 (4)
1 (1)
Sync
ö
C
ö
R
Phase control
Vöi
Trigger output
Power - on control
VRef
6.5 V/10 mA
Oscillator
Control unit
Gradient
d2V/dt2 and –dV
15 (17)
2 (2)
Power supply
VS = 8 to 26 V
160 mV
Ref
Temp. control
Tmax Sensor
94 8585
5 (5) 6 (6)
7 (8) 8 (9)
Figure 1. Block diagram
TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
Rev. A3, 14-Nov-96
Status control
Scan path
Battery
detection
VRef = 5 V
VBatt Monitor
0.1 to 4 V
3 (3)
10 (11)
Charge break
output
9 (10)
( ) SO 20, Pins 7 and 16 NC
1 (17)

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U2402B
Pinning
Package: DIP18
Output 1
GND 2
LED2 3
Vöi 4
OPO 5
OPI 6
Tmax 7
Sensor 8
tp 9
93 7723 e
Package: SO20
Output 1
GND 2
LED2 3
Vöi 4
OPO 5
OPI 6
NC 7
Tmax 8
Sensor 9
tp 10
94 8594
2 (17)
18 Vsync
17
ö
C
16
ö
R
15 VS
14 VRef
13 Osc
12 STM.
11 LED1
10 VBatt
20 Vsync
19
ö
C
18
ö
R
17 VS
16 NC
15 VRef
14 Osc
13 STM.
12 LED1
11 VBatt
Pin Description
Pin Symbol
Function
1 Output Trigger output
2 GND Ground
3 LED2 Display output “Green”
4 Vöi Phase angle control input voltage
5 OPO Operational amplifier output
6 OPI Operational amplifier input
7 Tmax Maximum temperature
8 Sensor Temperature sensor
9 tp Charge break output
10 VBatt Battery voltage
11 LED1 LED display output “Red”
12 STM. Test mode switch (status control)
13 Osc Oscillator
14 VRef Reference output voltage
15 VS Supply voltage
16
ö
R
Ramp current adjustment –
resistance
17
ö
C
Ramp voltage – capacitance
18 Vsync. Mains synchronization input
Pin Symbol
Function
1 Output Trigger output
2 GND Ground
3 LED2 Display output “Green”
4 Vöi Phase angle control input voltage
5 OPO Operational amplifier output
6 OPI Operational amplifier input
7 NC Not connected
8 Tmax Maximum temperature
9 Sensor Temperature sensor
10 tp Charge break output
11 VBatt Battery voltage
12 LED1 LED display output “Red”
13 STM. Test mode switch (status control)
14 Osc Oscillator
15 VRef Reference output voltage
16 NC Not connected
17 VS Supply voltage
18
ö
R
Ramp current adjustment –
resistance
19
ö
C
Ramp voltage – capacitance
20 Vsync. Mains synchronization input
TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
Rev. A3, 14-Nov-96

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U2402B
Figure 2. Block diagram with external circuit (DIP pinning)
TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
Rev. A3, 14-Nov-96
3 (17)

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U2402B
General Description
The integrated circuit, U2402B, is designed for charging
Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) and Nickel-Metal-Hydride
(NiMH) batteries. Fast charging results in voltage lobes
when fully charged (figure 3). It supplies two identifica-
tions ( i. e., + d2V/dt2, and – DV ) to end the charge
operation at the proper time.
As compared to the existing charge concepts where the
* *charge is terminated after voltage lobes according
to – DV and temperature gradient identification, the
U2402B-C takes into consideration the additional
changes in positive charge curves, according to the se-
cond derivative of the voltage with respect to time
(d2V/dt2). The charge identification is the sure method of
switching off the fast charge before overcharging the bat-
tery. This helps to give the battery a long life by hindering
any marked increase in cell pressure and temperature.
Even in critical charge applications, such as a reduced
charge current or with NiMH batteries where weaker
charge characteristics are present multiple gradient con-
trol results in very efficient switch-off.
An additional temperature control input increases not
only the performances of the charge switching character-
istics but also prevents the general charging of a battery
whose temperature is outside the specified window.
A constant charge current is necessary for continued
charge-voltage characteristic. This constant current regu-
lation is achieved with the help of internal amplifier phase
control and a simple shunt-current control technique.
All functions relating to battery management can be
achieved with dc-supply charge systems. A dc-dc-con-
verter or linear regulator should take over the function of
power supply. For further information please refer to the
applications.
Battery insertion
V10
5V
Battery
voltage
check
Gradient recognition
) d2V
dt2
DV
DV
monitoring
95 10172
Battery
formation
t1 = 5 min
)DV,
d2V
dt2
,
active
shorted batteries ignored
Fast charge rate IO
Top off
charge rate
1/4 IO
vt2 20 min
Figure 3. Charge function diagram, fosc = 800 Hz
t
Trickle
charge rate
1/256 IO
4 (17)
TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
Rev. A3, 14-Nov-96

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U2402B
Flow Chart Explanation, fosc = 800 Hz
(Figures 2, 3 and 4)
Battery pack insertion disables the voltage lock at battery
detection input Pin 10. All functions in the integrated
circuit are reset. For further description, DIP-pinning is
taken into consideration.
Battery Insertion and –dV Monitoring
The charging procedure will be carried out if battery
insertion is recognised. If the polarity of the inserted
battery is not according to the specification, the fast
charge rate will stop immediately. After the polarity test,
if positive, the defined fast charge rate, IO, begins for the
first 5 minutes according to –dV monitoring. After
5 minutes of charging, the first identification control is
executed.
If the inserted battery has a signal across its terminal of
less than 0.1 V, then the charging procedure is interrupted.
This means that the battery is defective i.e., it is not a
rechargeable battery – “shorted batteries ignored”.
Voltage and temperature measurements across the battery
are carried out during charge break interval (see figure 6),
i.e., currentless or idle measurements.
If the inserted battery is fully charged, the –dV control
will signal a charge stop after six measurements
(approximately 110 seconds). All the above mentioned
functions are recognised during the first 5 minutes
according to –dV method. During this time, +d2V/dt2
remains inactive. In this way the battery is protected from
unnecessary damage.
d2V/dt2-Gradient
If there is no charge stop within the first 5 minutes after
battery insertion, then d2V/dt2 monitoring will be active.
In this actual charge stage, all stop-charge criteria are
active.
When close to the battery’s capacity limit, the battery
voltage curve will typically rise. As long as the +d2V/dt2
stop-charging criteria are met, the device will stop the fast
charge activities.
Top-Off Charge Stage
By charge disconnection through the + d2V/dt2 mode, the
device switches automatically to a defined protective
top-off charge with a pulse rate of 1/4 IO (pulse time,
tp = 5.12 s, period, T = 20.48 s).
The top-off charge time is specified for a time of
20 minutes @ 800 Hz.
Trickle Charge Stage
When top-off charge is terminated, the device switches
automatically to trickle charge with 1/256 IO (tp = 5.12 s,
period = 1310.72 s). The trickle continues until the
battery pack is removed.
Basic Description
Power Supply, Figure 2
The charge controller allows the direct power supply of
8 to 26 V at Pin 15. Internal regulation limits higher input
voltages. Series resistance, R1, regulates the supply
current, IS, to a maximum value of 25 mA. Series
resistance is recommended to suppress the noise signal,
even below 26 V limitation. It is calculated as follows:
wR1min
Vmax–26 V
25 mA
vR1max
Vmin– 8 V
Itot
where
Itot = IS + IRB1 + I1
Vmax, Vmin = Rectified voltage
IS = Current consumption (IC) without load
IRB1 = Current through resistance, RB1
I1 = Trigger current at Pin 1
TELEFUNKEN Semiconductors
Rev. A3, 14-Nov-96
5 (17)