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19-3142; Rev 5; 11/09
Low IBIAS, +1.4V/800nA, Rail-to-Rail Op Amps
with +1.2V Buffered Reference
General Description
The single MAX4036/MAX4037 and dual MAX4038/
MAX4039 operational amplifiers operate from a single
+1.4V to +3.6V (without reference) or +1.8V to +3.6V (with
reference) supply and consume only 800nA of supply
current per amplifier, and 1.1µA for the optional refer-
ence. The MAX4036/MAX4038 feature a common-mode
input voltage range from 0V to VDD - 0.4V at VDD = 1.4V.
The MAX4037/MAX4039 feature a 1.232V voltage refer-
ence capable of sourcing 100µA and sinking 20µA.
The MAX4036–MAX4039s’ rail-to-rail outputs drive 5kΩ
loads to within 25mV of the rails. Ultra-low supply current,
low operating voltage, and rail-to-rail outputs make the
MAX4036–MAX4039 ideal for use in single-cell lithium-ion
(Li+), or two-cell NiCd/NiMH/alkaline battery-powered
applications.
The MAX4036 is available in an SC70 package, the
MAX4037 in a SOT23 package, and the MAX4038/
MAX4039 in UCSP™, µMAX®, and TDFN packages.
Applications
Battery-Powered/Solar-Powered Systems
Portable Medical Instrumentation
Pagers and Cell Phones
Micropower Thermostats and Potentiostats
Electrometer Amplifiers
Remote Sensor Amplifiers
Active Badges
pH Meters
Pin Configurations and Selector Guide appear at end of
data sheet.
µMAX is a registered trademark and UCSP is a trademark of
Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
Functional Diagram
OUTA
MAX4039
INA-
INA+
REF
REF
VSS
VDD
OUTB
INB-
INB+
Features
Ultra-Low 800nA per Amplifier Supply Current
Ultra-Low 1.4V Supply Voltage Operation (1.8V for
MAX4037/MAX4039)
Rail-to-Rail Outputs Drive 5kΩ and 5000pF Load
1.232V ±0.5%, 120ppm/°C (max) Reference
(MAX4037/MAX4039)
No External Reference Bypass Capacitor
Required
No Phase Reversal for Overdriven Inputs
Low 1.0pA (typ) Input Bias Current
Low 200μV Input Offset Voltage
Unity-Gain Stable
Available in Tiny UCSP, SC70, SOT23, TDFN, and
μMAX Packages
Available in -40°C to +125°C Temperature Range
(MAX4036A/MAX4038A)
Ordering Information
PART
TEMP RANGE
PIN-
PACKAGE
TOP
MARK
MAX4036EXK-T -40°C to +85°C 5 SC70
AFR
MAX4036AAXK+T -40°C to +125°C 5 SC70
ASN
MAX4037EUT-T -40°C to +85°C 6 SOT23
ABRX
MAX4038ETA-T -40°C to +85°C 8 TDFN-EP* AGO
MAX4038EUA
-40°C to +85°C 8 µMAX
MAX4038EBL-T -40°C to +85°C 9 UCSP
AEG
MAX4038AAUA -40°C to +125°C 8 µMAX
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
-Denotes a package containing lead.
*EP = Exposed pad.
Ordering Information continued at end of data sheet.
Typical Operating Circuit
3V
VDD
INA-
OUTA
INA+ MAX4039
REF
INB-
INB+
OUTB
VSS
SENSOR
ADC
THREE-ELECTRODE POTENTIOSTAT APPLICATION
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642,
or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com.

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Low IBIAS, +1.4V/800nA, Rail-to-Rail Op Amps
with +1.2V Buffered Reference
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
VDD to VSS .............................................................-0.3V to +4.0V
INA+, INB+, INA-, INB-, IN+, IN-, OUTA,
OUTB, OUT, REF .........................(VSS - 0.3V) to (VDD + 0.3V)
OUTA, OUTB, OUT, REF Shorted to VSS or VDD .......Continuous
Maximum Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
5-Pin SC70 (derate 3.1mW/°C above +70°C) ..............247mW
6-Pin SOT23 (derate 8.7mW/°C above +70°C)............696mW
8-Pin µMAX (derate 4.5mW/°C above +70°C) .............362mW
8-Pin TDFN (derate 24.4mW/°C above +70°C) .........1951mW
9-Bump UCSP (derate 5.2mW/°C above +70°C).........412mW
10-Pin µMAX (derate 5.6mW/°C above +70°C) ...........444mW
10-Pin TDFN (derate 24.4mW/°C above +70°C) .......1951mW
Operating Temperature Range
MAX403_E_ _...................................................-40°C to +85°C
MAX403_A_ _ ................................................-40°C to +125°C
Junction Temperature .....................................................+150°C
Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VDD = +3V, VSS = VCM = 0V, VOUT_ = VDD/2, RL to VDD/2, CL = 15pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN TYP
Supply Voltage Range
Supply Current
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
Input Offset Voltage
Input Bias Current
Input Offset Current
MAX4036/MAX4038, guaranteed by PSRR
tests
VDD
MAX4037/MAX4039, guaranteed by PSRR
and line regulation tests
1.4
1.8
MAX4036
MAX4037
IDD
MAX4038
MAX4039
VDD = 1.4V
VDD = 3.6V
VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 3.6V
VDD = 1.4V
VDD = 3.6V
VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 3.6V
0.8
0.9
1.9
2.0
1.7
1.9
2.8
3.0
VOS
IB (Note 1)
IOS (Note 1)
VDD = 1.4V
(MAX4036/MAX4038 only)
VSS
±0.2
±1.0
±0.3
Input Common-Mode Voltage
Range
VCM
Guaranteed by
CMRR test
VDD = 1.8V
VSS
VDD = 3.3V
VSS
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio
CMRR
PSRR
VDD = 1.4V, VSS VCM (VDD - 0.4V)
(MAX4036/MAX4038 only)
VDD = 1.8V, VSS VCM (VDD - 0.3V)
VDD = 3.3V, VSS VCM (VDD - 0.2V)
1.4V VDD 3.6V (MAX4036/MAX4038
only)
1.8V VDD 3.6V
50 70
50 70
56 76
62 82
62 84
MAX
3.6
3.6
1.2
1.3
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.5
4.0
4.1
±2.0
±10
±20
VDD -
0.4
VDD -
0.3
VDD -
0.2
UNITS
V
µA
mV
pA
pA
V
dB
dB
2 _______________________________________________________________________________________

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Low IBIAS, +1.4V/800nA, Rail-to-Rail Op Amps
with +1.2V Buffered Reference
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VDD = +3V, VSS = VCM = 0V, VOUT_ = VDD/2, RL to VDD/2, CL = 15pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN TYP
Large-Signal Voltage Gain
Output Voltage Swing High
Output Voltage Swing Low
Output Short-Circuit Current
Gain-Bandwidth Product
Phase Margin
Slew Rate
AVOL
RL = 100kΩ, 50mV VOUT (VDD - 50mV)
RL = 5kΩ, 150mV VOUT (VDD - 150mV)
80
78
108
105
VDD - VOH
RL = 100kΩ
RL = 5kΩ
2
25
VOL - VSS
RL = 100kΩ
RL = 5kΩ
2
25
ISCO To VDD or VSS
±13
GBW
4
θM 90
SR 4
Power-On Time
tON
Input Noise-Voltage Density
en
Capacitive-Load Stability
CLOAD
REFERENCE (MAX4037/MAX4039)
Reference Voltage
VREF
Line Regulation
ΔVREF/
ΔVDD
(Note 3)
f = 1kHz
AVCL = 1V/V, no sustained oscillations
VDD = +1.8V to +3.6V
0.25
500
5000
1.226 1.232
Load Regulation
Reference Output Voltage Noise
Output Short-Circuit Current
Capacitive-Load Stability Range
ΔVREF/
ΔILOAD
en
ISCR
CLOAD
0 ILOAD 100µA, sourcing
-20µA ILOAD 0, sinking
0.1Hz to 10Hz
Short to VDD
Short to VSS
(Note 1)
60
0.25
1.9
0
MAX UNITS
dB
5
mV
50
5
mV
50
mA
kHz
Degrees
V/ms
ms
nV/Hz
pF
1.238
V
0.3 %/V
0.0015
0.0075
%/µA
µVP-P
mA
250 pF
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VDD = +3V, VSS = VCM = 0V, VOUT_ = VDD/2, RL to VDD/2, CL = 15pF, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise specified.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Supply Voltage Range
MAX4036/MAX4038, guaranteed by PSRR
test
VDD
MAX4037/MAX4039, guaranteed by PSRR
and line regulation tests
1.4
1.8
3.6
V
3.6
Supply Current
MAX4036
IDD MAX4036A
MAX4037
VDD = 1.4V
VDD = 3.6V
VDD = 1.4V
VDD = 3.6V
VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 3.6V
1.7
1.8
2.0
µA
2.1
3.1
3.2
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 3

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Low IBIAS, +1.4V/800nA, Rail-to-Rail Op Amps
with +1.2V Buffered Reference
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VDD = +3V, VSS = VCM = 0V, VOUT_ = VDD/2, RL to VDD/2, CL = 15pF, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise specified.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
Supply Current
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
Input Offset Voltage
Input Offset Voltage Temperature
Coefficient
Input Bias Current
Input Offset Current
Input Common-Mode Voltage
Range
SYMBOL
MAX4038
IDD MAX4038A
MAX4039
CONDITIONS
VDD = 1.4V
VDD = 3.6V
VDD = 1.4V
VDD = 3.6V
VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 3.6V
VOS
TCVOS
IB
IOS
VCM
Guaranteed by
CMRR test
VDD = 1.4V
(MAX4036/MAX4038 only)
VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 3.3V
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio
CMRR
PSRR
VDD = 1.4V, VSS VCM (VDD - 0.5V)
(MAX4036/MAX4038 only)
VDD = 1.8V, VSS VCM (VDD - 0.4V)
VDD = 3.3V, VSS VCM (VDD - 0.3V)
1.4V VDD 3.6V
(MAX4036/MAX4038 only)
1.8V VDD 3.6V
Large-Signal Voltage Gain
AVOL
Output Voltage Swing High
VDD - VOH
Output Voltage Swing Low
VOL - VSS
REFERENCE (MAX4037/MAX4039)
Reference Voltage Temperature
Coefficient
TCVREF
RL = 100kΩ, 50mV VOUT (VDD - 50mV)
RL = 5kΩ, 150mV VOUT (VDD - 150mV)
RL = 100kΩ
RL = 5kΩ
RL = 100kΩ
RL = 5kΩ
MAX4037EUT-T, MAX4039ETB,
(Note 1) MAX4039EUB
MAX4039EBL-T
Line Regulation
Load Regulation
Capacitive-Load Stability Range
ΔVREF/
ΔVDD
ΔVREF/
ΔILOAD
CLOAD
VDD = 1.8V to 3.6V
0 ILOAD 100µA, sourcing
-20µA ILOAD 0, sinking
(Note 1)
MIN
VSS
VSS
VSS
44
50
52
60
60
75
73
0
TYP
MAX
2.9
3.2
3.4
3.7
5.2
5.3
UNITS
µA
±8 mV
±1 µV/°C
±100
±200
VDD -
0.4
VDD -
0.4
VDD -
0.2
pA
pA
V
dB
dB
dB
10
mV
100
10
mV
100
25 120
ppm/°C
35 200
0.6 %/V
0.003
0.015
250
%/µA
pF
Note 1: Guaranteed by design.
Note 2: All devices are production tested at TA = +25°C. All temperature limits are guaranteed by design.
Note 3: Output settles within 1% of final value.
4 _______________________________________________________________________________________

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Low IBIAS, +1.4V/800nA, Rail-to-Rail Op Amps
with +1.2V Buffered Reference
Typical Operating Characteristics
(VDD = 3V, VSS = VCM = 0V, RL to VDD/2, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
MAX4036
SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE
1.6
1.2 TA = +85°C TA = +25°C
0.8
0.4 TA = -40°C
0
1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
MAX4039
SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE
5
MAX4037
SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE
3.0
TA = +85°C TA = +25°C
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0 TA = -40°C
0.5
0
1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
OFFSET VOLTAGE
vs. COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE
1.0
MAX4038
SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE
3.0
2.5 TA = +85°C TA = +25°C
2.0
1.5
1.0 TA = -40°C
0.5
0
1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
OFFSET VOLTAGE
vs. TEMPERATURE
0.30
4 TA = +85°C TA = +25°C
3
2
TA = -40°C
1
0.8
0.6 VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 1.4V
0.4
VDD = 3.0V
0.2
0.20
0.10
0
-0.10
-0.20
0
1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
0
0123
COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE (V)
-0.30
-40
-15 10 35 60
TEMPERATURE (°C)
85
INPUT BIAS CURRENT
vs. TEMPERATURE
40
30
20
10 VCM = 3V
0
-10
-40
VCM = 0V
-15 10 35 60
TEMPERATURE (°C)
85
INPUT BIAS CURRENT
vs. COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE
40
30
TA = +85°C
20
10
TA = +25°C
0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE (V)
OP AMP POWER-SUPPLY REJECTION RATIO
vs. FREQUENCY
0
-10 AV = 1V/V
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
10
100 1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10k
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