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PropellerP8X32A Datasheet
8-Cog Multiprocessor Microcontroller
1.0 PRODUCT OVERVIEW
1.1. Introduction
The Propeller chip is designed to provide high-speed processing for embedded systems while maintaining low current
consumption and a small physical footprint. In addition to being fast, the Propeller chip provides flexibility and power
through its eight processors, called cogs, that can perform simultaneous tasks independently or cooperatively, all while
maintaining a relatively simple architecture that is easy to learn and utilize. Two programming languages are available: Spin
(a high-level object-based language) and Propeller Assembly. Both include custom commands to easily manage the
Propeller chip’s unique features.
Figure 1: Propeller P8X32A Block Diagram
1.2. Stock Codes
Table 1: Propeller Chip Stock Codes
Device
Stock #
Package Type
I/O Power
Pins Requirements
External
Clock
Speed
Internal RC
Oscillator
Internal
Execution
Speed
P8X32A-D40
P8X32A-Q44
P8X32A-M44
40-pin DIP
44-pin LQFP
44-pin QFN
32
CMOS
3.3 volts DC
DC to 80
MHz
12 MHz or
20 kHz*
*Approximate; may range from 8 MHz – 20 MHz, or 13 kHz – 33 kHz, respectively.
0 to 160 MIPS
(20 MIPS/cog)
Global
ROM/RAM
64 K bytes;
32768 bytes
ROM / 32768
bytes RAM
Cog RAM
512 x 32 bits
per cog
Parallax, Propeller, Spin, and the Parallax and Propeller logos are trademarks of Parallax, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
Copyright © Parallax Inc.
Page 1 of 37
Rev 1.2 4/24/2009

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Propeller™ P8X32A Datasheet
Table of Contents
1.0 Product Overview......................................................... 1
1.1. Introduction ................................................................................1
1.2. Stock Codes...............................................................................1
1.3. Key Features..............................................................................3
1.4. Programming Advantages..........................................................3
1.5. Applications................................................................................3
1.6. Programming Platform Support..................................................3
1.7. Corporate and Community Support............................................3
2.0
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
Connection Diagrams .................................................. 4
Pin Assignments ........................................................................4
Pin Descriptions .........................................................................4
Typical Connection Diagrams ....................................................5
Propeller Clip or Propeller Plug Connection - Recommended...............5
Alternative Serial Port Connection.........................................................5
3.0 Operating Procedures ................................................. 6
3.1. Boot-Up Procedure ....................................................................6
3.2. Run-Time Procedure..................................................................6
3.3. Shutdown Procedure..................................................................6
4.0
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.
4.8.
4.9.
4.9.1.
4.9.2.
4.9.3.
4.10.
4.10.1.
4.10.2.
4.10.3.
4.11.
System Organization ................................................... 6
Shared Resources .....................................................................6
System Clock .............................................................................6
Cogs (processors)......................................................................7
Hub ............................................................................................7
I/O Pins ......................................................................................8
System Counter .........................................................................8
Locks .........................................................................................8
Assembly Instruction Execution Stages .....................................9
Cog Counters...........................................................................10
CTRA / CTRB – Control register .........................................................10
FRQA / FRQB – Frequency register....................................................10
PHSA / PHSB – Phase register...........................................................10
Video Generator.......................................................................11
VCFG – Video Configuration Register.................................................11
VSCL – Video Scale Register..............................................................12
WAITVID Command/Instruction ..........................................................12
CLK Register............................................................................14
5.0
5.1.
5.1.1.
5.1.2.
5.1.3.
5.1.4.
Memory Organization ................................................ 15
Main Memory ...........................................................................15
Main RAM............................................................................................15
Main ROM ...........................................................................................15
Character Definitions...........................................................................15
Math Function Tables..........................................................................16
www.parallax.com
5.2. Cog RAM................................................................................. 16
6.0
6.1.
6.1.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.4.
6.4.1.
6.4.2.
6.4.3.
6.4.4.
Programming Languages ..........................................17
Reserved Word List ................................................................. 17
Words Reserved for Future Use ......................................................... 17
Math and Logic Operators ....................................................... 18
Spin Language Summary Table .............................................. 19
Constants ........................................................................................... 21
Propeller Assembly Instruction Table....................................... 22
Assembly Conditions .......................................................................... 24
Assembly Directives ........................................................................... 24
Assembly Effects ................................................................................ 24
Assembly Operators ........................................................................... 24
7.0 Propeller Demo Board Schematic.............................25
8.0 Electrical Characteristics...........................................26
8.1. Absolute Maximum Ratings ..................................................... 26
8.2. DC Characteristics................................................................... 26
8.3. AC Characteristics ................................................................... 26
9.0 Current Consumption Characteristics .....................27
9.1. Typical Current Consumption of 8 Cogs .................................. 27
9.2. Typical Current of a Cog vs. Operating Frequency .................. 28
9.3. Typical PLL Current vs. VCO Frequency ................................. 28
9.4. Typical Crystal Drive Current ................................................... 29
9.5. Cog and I/O Pin Relationship................................................... 29
9.6. Current Profile at Various Startup Conditions .......................... 30
10.0
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
Temperature Characteristics.....................................31
Internal Oscillator Frequency as a Function of Temperature.... 31
Fastest Operating Frequency as a Function of Temperature ... 32
Current Consumption as a Function of Temperature ............... 33
11.0
11.1.
11.2.
11.3.
Package Dimensions..................................................34
P8X32A-D40 (40-pin DIP)........................................................ 34
P8X32A-Q44 (44-pin LQFP) .................................................... 35
P8X32A-M44 (44-pin QFN)...................................................... 36
12.0
12.1.
12.2.
Manufacturing Info .....................................................37
Reflow Peak Temperature ....................................................... 37
Green/RoHS Compliance ........................................................ 37
13.0 Revision History .........................................................37
13.1.1.
Changes for Version 1.1: .................................................................... 37
13.1.2.
Changes for Version 1.2: .................................................................... 37
Copyright © Parallax Inc.
Page 2 of 37
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Propeller™ P8X32A Datasheet
1.3. Key Features
The design of the Propeller chip frees application
developers from common complexities of embedded
systems programming. For example:
Eight processors (cogs) perform simultaneous
processes independently or cooperatively, sharing
common resources through a central hub. The
Propeller application designer has full control over
how and when each cog is employed; there is no
compiler-driven or operating system-driven splitting
of tasks among multiple cogs. This method
empowers the developer to deliver absolutely
deterministic timing, power consumption, and
response to the embedded application.
Asynchronous events are easier to handle than with
devices that use interrupts. The Propeller has no
need for interrupts; just assign some cogs to
individual, high-bandwidth tasks and keep other
cogs free and unencumbered. The result is a more
responsive application that is easier to maintain.
A shared System Clock allows each cog to maintain
the same time reference, allowing true synchronous
execution.
1.4. Programming Advantages
The object-based high-level Spin language is easy to
learn, with special commands that allow developers
to quickly exploit the Propeller chip’s unique and
powerful features.
Propeller Assembly instructions provide conditional
execution and optional flag and result writing for
each individual instruction. This makes critical,
multi-decision blocks of code more consistently
timed; event handlers are less prone to jitter and
developers spend less time padding, or squeezing,
cycles.
1.5. Applications
The Propeller chip is particularly useful in projects that
can be vastly simplified with simultaneous processing,
including:
Industrial control systems
Sensor integration, signal processing, and data
acquisition
Handheld portable human-interface terminals
Motor and actuator control
User interfaces requiring NTSC, PAL, or VGA
output, with PS/2 keyboard and mouse input
Low-cost video game systems
Industrial, educational or personal-use robotics
Wireless video transmission (NTSC or PAL)
1.6.
www.parallax.com
Programming Platform Support
Parallax Inc. supports the Propeller chip with a variety of
hardware tools and boards:
Propeller Clip (#32200) and Propeller Plug
(#32201). These boards provide convenient
programming port connections, see the Typical
Connection Diagrams on Page 5.
The Propeller Demo Board (#32100) provides a
convenient means to test-drive the Propeller chip's
varied capabilities through a host of device
interfaces on one compact board. The schematic is
provided on page 25. Main features:
o P8X32A-Q44 Propeller Chip
o 24LC256-I/ST EEPROM for program storage
o Replaceable 5.000 MHz crystal
o 3.3 V and 5 V regulators with on/off switch
o USB-to-serial interface for programming and
communication
o VGA and TV output
o Stereo output with 16 headphone amplifier
o Electret microphone input
o Two PS/2 mouse and keyboard I/O connectors
o 8 LEDs (share VGA pins)
o Pushbutton for reset
o Big ground post for scope hookup
o I/O pins P0-P7 are free and brought out to header
o Breadboard for custom circuits
The Propeller Proto Board (#32212) features a
surface-mount Propeller chip with the necessary
components to achieve a programming interface,
with pads ready for a variety of I/O connectors and
DIP/SIP chips, and a generous through-hole
prototyping area.
The PropStick USB (#32210) features a Propeller
chip, EEPROM, 3.3 VDC and 5 VDC regulators,
reset button, crystal and USB connection on a 0.6”
wide DIP package for easy prototyping on perfboard
and breadboard.
1.7. Corporate and Community Support
Parallax provides technical support free of charge.
In the Continental US, call toll free (888) 512-1024;
from outside please call (916) 624-8333. Or, email:
support@parallax.com.
Parallax hosts a moderated public user’s forum just
for the Propeller: http://forums.parallax.com/forums.
Browse through community-created Propeller
objects and share yours with others via Parallax-
hosted Propeller Object Exchange Library:
http://obex.parallax.com.
Copyright © Parallax Inc.
Page 3 of 37
Rev 1.2 4/24/2009